Demand of Middle Upper Class as the Future Philanthropy Actor for Sustainable Development
In his speech to the House of Representatives on Aug. 15, 2014, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono claimed the success of his administration that Indonesia’s economic growth rate in 2009-13 was higher than that of the United States, Europe and Japan during the same periode, and in the first semester of 2014, Indonesia’s economic growth remained the highest after China among the members of the G-20. Also, Indonesia’s foreign debt-to-GDP ratio is very low at 23 percent, 2014 saw the highest state revenues in history, and per-capita income has more than tripled from Rp 10.5 million ($890) in 2004 to Rp 36.6 million ($3,100) in 2013. The president also pointed to Indonesia’s membership of the G-20, giving it a voice in global decision-making, as proof of its elevated status. The status of Indonesia has increased from LDC into middle upper economics, and expectedly will be the 10 biggest economics power in the world.
However, if we change our perspective just a little bit, a different picture emerges. According to the Global Hunger Index, for instance, even though Indonesia is now a member of the G-20, our rating in 2013 was 10.1 (which signifies serious hunger), placing us behind Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia. Using a poverty line of $1.50 (PPP), there were 36.15 million poor people — or 16.66 percent of the population. If we look at the World Bank’s data (their poverty line is set at $2 per day) in 2013, 51.1 percent of Indonesians were living in poverty. MMR that was targeted to achieve 110 per 100,000 deliveries, increased to 358 noted as ‘scandal of our time’ for Indonesia.
Thus the economic growth of Indonesia is only benefiting small group of Indonesian. In 2010, the wealth of the 40 richest people in Indonesia was Rp 680 trillion — the equivalent of 10.3 percent of the national GDP. An NGO study found that the total wealth of those 40 equaled the wealth of 60 million of the country’s poorest people. In the perspective of philanthropy, this group is an asset for the solution of social and economic degradation in Indonesia. Since the last 10 years there was a shifting development and humanitarian funding from ODA, Government to private. The middle and upper class of Indonesia contribute much in CSR and Corporate Philanthropy not only for Indonesia but also for South East Asia. Hence, to manage the power of growing middle upper Indonesian economic class to response inequality, social and environmental degradation, and also to enhance people resilience toward turbulence economics crisis, disaster and climate change, we need new paradigm, approaches and framework to understand the philanthropic value, motive and characteristics of the targeted donors. Therefore we need skill and professionalism, that should develop from the synthesis of existing field best practices & and update research on development, economics, psychology, sociology, marketing, and other related knowledges.
Demand for Faith Based Community Resilience Based and Philanthropy Studies
Since 1990, the incidence of natural disasters have tripled, affecting 217 million people annually. Over the last 30 years, one-third of spending on development has been lost to recurrent crises, totaling 3.8 trillion dollars worldwide. As climate change and population growth continue, disasters strike faster and chronic stresses last even longer http://www.globalresiliencepartnership.org/ . Over the last decade, China, the United States, Indonesia, the Philippines and India constitute together the top 5 countries that are most frequently hit by natural disasters. (http://reliefweb.int/report/world/annual-disaster-statistical-review-2013-numbers-and-trends)
Currently 170,000 people displaced due to conflicts and minority persecution in Indonesia, more than 375 million affected globally by disasters every year; the 19,000 children died daily due from preventable diseases, 800 women dying daily from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth across the globe and the 15% of the total the population of our planet becoming disabled through human induced and natural calamities; the majority of which are the poor and uneducated. This is contradicted with the original condition during the creation. “And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good” (Genesis 1:31). In our faith perspective, the sustainability of this world depends on the wholeness of God creation, with human as the central actor. When the money and other material fails to solve the problem of the world, we should back to main power of the human that is relation with others (social and environmental cohesion) and relation with the creator (spiritual values). It is a big question, on why the extreme poor, the survivors of conflicts and disasters, victims of climate change, victim of violence still survive, even maintaining their good quality of life although physically they look terrible. This because they have adaptation capacity, high level of resilience. This is the candle in the end of the tunnel, which is neglected by the world, but should be highlighted by FBO, and offered for the framework for post 2015 development. Strengthening people’s resilience in the face of natural and man made hazards, including economic shock, protection and security for vulnerable people who are alienated from markets, and tackling inequality are the three crosscutting issues necessary to ensure the humanity and integrity of creation and humankind post 2015 Development Agenda. This key asks has expressed in Interfaith Declaration for the Post 2015 Development Framework, Bali, March 25th, 2013. The Interfaith community recognize that an enabling environment for resilience strengthening must allow accountable participation in policies and program development, implementation, monitoring, reporting and evaluation, equitable participation of all relevant stakeholders particularly critical for those without access, women, the elderly and children, sharing common but differentiated responsibilities between parties and countries, respecting and supporting CSO contribution. Therefore the interfaith commit to act directly at the grassroots level to achieve the current MDG goals by 2015 using existing human resources and the assets of the interfaith network. Therefore we call on all parties both public and private, research institute, CSOs at all levels; global, regional, national and local to work hand in hand to solve the current gaps in the MDGs. We commit to continue to share the positive energy for the future of sustainable development based on love, rahmatan lil ‘aalamin, humanity and dignity, a pure and clean heart, and faith brought to life through action. We will continue our interfaith advocacy network starting from grassroots up to local, national, regional and global levels, to promote just and sustainable development, which sustains God’s creation.
Demand for Research, Education and Capacity Building for Community Resilience — a bridging framework between disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and sustainable development
“Only when the diverse interventions in humanitarian and development aid are connected in a strategic manner can they be effective in making a difference in implementation at the community level” (Finish Government Development Program’s Evaluation 2010, quoted in the Policy Paper of GNDR 2012)
There are good reasons why the concept of resilience is at the centre of current debates in development, climate change adaptation and humanitarian aid. The number of people affected by disasters is not likely to diminish, and frustration with the need for repeated massive aid efforts in the same parts of the world has led to increasing pressure to address the underlying vulnerabilities that lead to humanitarian crisis. Climate change is expected to cause more widespread and more extreme hazards, and to exacerbate factors that make people less able to cope with shocks. ‘Building resilience’ has been invoked as a new organising principle by the UN, donors and NGOs, as a way to prevent unacceptable levels of human suffering, reduce the costs of emergency response and bring climate change adaptation into mainstream development practice (Levine et al., 2012).
By definition the disaster resilience is ‘the power of individuals and communities to live with dignity, responding to disasters and the opportunities and risks they face’ (Christian Aid). Disaster Resilience is the ability of countries, communities and households to manage change, by maintaining or transforming living standards in the face of shocks or stresses — such as earthquakes, drought or violent conflict — without compromising their long-term prospects (DFID 2011). Eight stories in the book shared by the survivors of conflicts, disasters, injustice & negative stigma towards the diffables and unsustainable practices of developments showed the community resilience in the very essence of practice, in the daily life of the people.
There is an ever increasing array of fragmented development policy frameworks (e.g. natural disasters, climate change, poverty alleviation, food security, conflict) that have an inappropriately narrow and technical focus. They are owned and driven by separate UN agencies and government offices, often with overlapping mandates and high levels of institutional duplication. In general they fail to address or respond to the inter-connected and complex relationships between social, economic and environmental risks, tending to be implemented in a top-down “siloed” manner with limited policy coherence, synergy or collective local impact. To be meaningful a future disaster prevention framework must address the inter-connected challenge of social, economic and environmental risks – in many cases the interaction between these different elements provides the key to successful risk reduction. Whilst a certain degree of compartmentalisation is inevitable and desirable if programmes are to be implemented with the necessary expertise the current way of working favours specialisation over more holistic approaches. A broader systems-wide approach to building general or systemic local-level resilience to shocks and stresses of all kinds offers a more effective way of dealing with the complex, multiple-risk fast changing dynamic in which poor people live. A broader comprehension of resilience can provide multiple benefits related to people’s safety and wellbeing, whilst serving to provides a basis for greater collaboration, harmonisation and synergy between different development frameworks to jointly address the causes of vulnerability and exposure. A shared understanding of resilience supporting the pooling of efforts and resources across the whole community can realise synergies resulting in a more effective use of resources that can compensate for economic constraints and achieve greater impact (return on investment) at the local level. Resilient communities are the foundation and basic building block for building a resilient world (GNDR 2012).
A shared understanding of resilience supporting the pooling of efforts and resources across the whole community can realise synergies resulting in a more effective use of resources that can compensate for economic constraints and achieve greater impact (return on investment) at the local level. Resilient communities are the foundation and basic building block for building a resilient world.
Demands of the Stakeholders in Philanthropy and Resilience Studies in Indonesia
Global & Regional: By the end of 2015, the world will decide the new direction of development replacing MDGs. Involving all stakeholders since the last 2 years, UN has agreed the zero draft of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 17 new goals. Resilience at all level especially at community levels and financing for development is the two core trending issue of the discussion, not only in the area of development studies, but other profession both technical and social sciences. In the parallel process, Hyugo Framework of Action as global commitment on Disaster Risk Reduction will also ended in 2015. Learning from the best practices, it found that community resilience should be the core for the new policy for post 2015 HFA. The role of CSO/CBO as well as private in development financing is also be prioritized. This creating a demand of better and innovative interventions as well policy development and capacity building at all levels. Major global development player both UN system, Breton word institutions (World Bank, IMF, etc.), CSOs (CSO partnership in development effectiveness), state funding and foundations, start to prioritize their social investment in the issue of resilience trough research and interventions. Among of those Institutions sending proposal call are Global Resilience Partnership, R2HC-UK, and many others.
To enable the most vulnerable people to build resilience and break free from the cycle of crisis, The Rockefeller Foundation , U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and SIDA are pioneering the Global Resilience Partnership (Resilience Partnership). The Resilience Partnership will operate in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, and South and Southeast Asia—three regions where the frequency and magnitude of shocks and stresses are rising. The Resilience Partnership with initial funding $ 150 million will foster new alliances and drive innovation to help re-imagine opportunities for scale, impact, sustainability and partnering in resilience.
National: The current new Indonesian Government under Jokowi-JK administration totally pro-people government. Social protection on health, education and poverty reduction is their main concern. Many term of resilience i.e. togetherness and social cohesion (gotong royong), food self-sustain (sovereignty), sustainable energy, village resilience, DRR are amongst of the term of the issue of resilience included in the new village law (UU Desa) as well as other government program that will be implemented by the new government. This invite the involvement of research institute, humanitarian and development CSO to contribute the best development model that enhance resilience and philanthropy among the people in the spirit of Gotong Royong.
Indonesian Universities/Research Institute:
Indonesian university is mandated to implement three university pillars i.e. education, research and community services. In fact Indonesian University focus on education rather than in research and community services which neglected behind. There are many gaps in research both in quantity as well quality in term of theoretical implication and practical implications. Direct linkage with policy makers, Development practitioners both privates and CSOs needed to enhance the quality and quantity of research especially in the issue of resilience and philanthropy. Along with the high professional demand on resilience and philanthropy also attracting university to develop graduate study with concentration in that issue, within the body knowledge of development studies, macro economics, environmental studies, management/ business studies, technical studies as well theological studies.
Interfaith Humanitarian & Development CSO:
CSO, especially interfaith CSO is always live with people at grassroots levels. The implement so many initiative and project at the ground. In the issue of resilience, CSO know well factors attributed to the people resiliencies, best and bad practices of community resiliencies. However, major CSO poor in knowledge management and research. Only less than 10% of their intervention research in the ground are manage into intervention research. Therefore CSO lack of evidence based research as the important tool both in policy implication, and improvement of quality management as well.
Interfaith CSO especially Muslim based has practicing philanthropy managements very well. Three member of Humanitarian Forum Indonesia i.e. Dompet Dhuafa, PKPU and Rumah Zakat- each of the organization collects minimum 200 billion a year from the public. That organization need to enhance the quality trough professional capacity building for their staff and network, research for best impact programming, research how to transform their giving from charity to transformative development etc. The organization can also take a role as center of Zakat research and education not only for Indonesia but also for global world.
Growing awareness of private corporate social/environmental awareness, demanding also a strategic alliance with other stakeholder for strategic CSR interventions, strategic policy engagement and social image/branding management, capacity building, organizational development, etc. The issue of resilience is also correlated closely with business, therefore research on the role of business to build resilience community, cities and country is needed.