In September 2015 all UN members including Indonesia during UNGA has declared a new ambition of a just, prosperous, inclusive and sustainable world free from poverty and hunger in 2030, namely Sustainable Development Goals[i]. Whenit was seen in a holistic view of a balance in economic, social and environmental development, a question emerges, in the picture of sustainable development what are the three pillars which could be applied in Indonesia?
Since the last decade, the economic growth of Indonesia is higher compared to the United States, Europe, and Japan. Even during the global crisis — 2014 first semester — Indonesian economic growth remained the highest after China among the G-20 members. Indonesia foreign debt-to-GDP ratio was also really low even reached to the rate of 23 percent. The highest state revenues in history, which happened in 2014, tripled per-capita income from IDR 10.5 million ($890) in 2004 to IDR 36.6 million ($3,100) in 2013[ii].
However the social development figure gave a different picture of Indonesia. According to the Global Hunger Index, for instance, even though Indonesia is now a member of the G-20, our rating in 2013 was only 10.1 (which signifies serious hunger), placing us behind Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia. Using a poverty line rate of $1.50 (PPP), there were 36.15 million poor people — or 16.66 percent of the total population. If we look at the World Bank’s data (their poverty line rate is set at $2 per day) in 2013, 51.1 percent of Indonesians were still living in poverty. In year 2010, the wealth of 40 richest people in Indonesia was IDR 680 trillion — about the equivalent of 10.3 percent of the national GDP. One NGO study found that the total wealth of those 40 people is equal to the combined wealth of 60 million of the country’s poorest people[iii].
Now, with MDGs coming to close end, Indonesia has reach most of its MDGs target except the target to decrease hunger, better access of water and sanitation, decrease HIV & AIDS, and the goal to decrease MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate) that was targeted to be achievedas much as 110 per 100,000 deliveries in the end of MDGs term in 2015. However, instead of decreasing, the number is increasing to 358 per 100,000 caseand noted as the ‘scandal of our time’ for Indonesia. Man made and climate contribute the most in destruction of environmental situation in Indonesia. Over the last decade, China, the United States, Indonesia, the Philippines and India were constituted together as the top 5 countries that are most frequently hit by natural disasters[iv]. Since the last 18 years the biggest island in Indonesia has been suffering haze from the forest burning mostly done by palm oil and pulp industries[v]. Hence, we conclude that the current state of Indonesian Development is still far from the idea of sustainable development.
In Indonesia, both the government and CSO, participate fully in all process of SDGs. Former Indonesian President, Mr. SusiloBambangYudhoyono, is even elected to be the co-chair of High Level Panel of Eminent Persons (HLP-EP) in which he provide input for UN General Secretary synthesis report[vi]. Indonesian CSO Coalition for SDGs also meets regularly to advocate the grassroots voice for SDGs. During the UN summit on the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda September 29,2015, the vice President of the Republic of Indonesia bold the Indonesian political commitment to implement SDGs and its mainstreamed into its national development planning.[vii]Soon after SDGs declaration, on October 6th-7th 2015, Indonesian CSO coalition assembled again to ensure the implementation of SDGs in Indonesia. During the meeting we concluded that there are three frameworks which need to be developed to ensure the adoption and the implementation in Indonesia i.e. Regulatory, Financial and Institutional framework[viii]. With regards to the regulatory framework, SDGs should be included explicitly and implicitly in Indonesian regulation system for long-term development plan, departmental strategic plan in all level starting from central, provincial, district, until the village. Based on the regulatory framework, the budgeting system in all level, vertically and horizontally, should also be guaranteed. Both regulatory and financial framework should be implemented by institution that have power and capacity to direct, lead, and coordinate all actors. Therefore we need a study and research on finding the best strategy to apply the three pillars of SDGs implementation in Indonesia. It is also fundamentally necessary to study what is the most appropriate role of CSO in this stage, based on its best practice and potential.
Objective of the study:
Significance: The output of the study will provides :
[iii]From many sources, especially “ Pembangunan di Indonesia: Prospek dan Tantangan” http://theprakarsa.org/new/in/books/detail/15/Pembangunan-Inklusif-Prospek-dan-Tantangan-Indonesia
[vii]Permanent Mission of the Republic of Indonesia to the United Nations, 26 September 2015 “ Statement by H.E.Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia, at the United Nations Summit on the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda, New York, www.indonesiamission-ny.org